 Introduction
 Historical background
 Technical preliminaries
 Calculus
 Ordinary differential equations
 Partial differential equations
 Complex analysis
 Measure theory
 Other areas of analysis
 History of analysis
analysis: Additional Information
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Assorted References
 17th and 18thcentury mathematics
 homology
 In homology
 metalogic
 significance to Lebesgue
work of
 Goursat
 Liouville
 MittagLeffler
Additional Reading
Nontechnical works
James R. Newman (ed.), The World of Mathematics, 4 vol. (1956, reprinted 1988), a gigantic and eclectic collection of writings about mathematics and mathematicians, contains many items related to analysis. Leo Zippin, Uses of Infinity (1962, reissued 2000), covers topics such as limits and sums of infinite series. Morris Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times (1972, reprinted in 3 vol., 1990), an enormous and comprehensive history of mathematics up to the early 20th century, contains masses of material on the development of analysis and the thinking behind it. Philip J. Davis and Reuben Hersh, The Mathematical Experience (1981, reprinted 1998), tells what mathematicians do and why. Ian Stewart, From Here to Infinity (1996), follows the historical development of many areas of mathematics, including several chapters on analysis, both standard and nonstandard, and his Does God Play Dice?, 2nd ed. (1997), explains the basic underlying ideas of chaos theory. John Stillwell, Mathematics and Its History, 2nd ed. (2002), emphasizes historical developments in order to unify and motivate mathematical theory at an undergraduate level. Frederick J. Almgren, Jr., and Jean E. Taylor, “The Geometry of Soap Films and Soap Bubbles,” Scientific American, 235(1):82–93 (July 1976), is a highly illustrated introduction to the Plateau problem for the nonspecialist.
Technical works
Calculus and real analysis
E. Hairer and G. Wanner, Analysis by Its History (1996), a wellillustrated and readable account of the history of calculus from Descartes to the beginning of the 20th century, is particularly informative on the classical period of Newton, Leibniz, the Bernoullis, and Euler. Jerrold Marsden and Alan Weinstein, Calculus, 2nd ed., 3 vol. (1985, vol. 2 and 3 reprinted with corrections, 1996, 1991), a clear and wellorganized calculus text, is typical of a vast literature but better than most. Tom M. Apostol, Calculus, 2nd. ed., 2 vol. (1967–69), is an introduction to rigorous analysis that is directed toward the topics usually featured in calculus courses. Walter Rudin, Principles of Mathematical Analysis, 3rd ed. (1976, reissued 1987), is a typical advanced undergraduate text on analysis. Bernard R. Gelbaum and John M.H. Olmsted, Counterexamples in Analysis (1964), contains a collection of problems that demonstrate just how counterintuitive rigorous analysis can be.
Complex analysis
E.T. Whittaker and G.N. Watson, A Course of Modern Analysis, 4th ed. (1927, reprinted 1996), is a classic text on complex analysis that turns into a remarkably detailed survey of the most interesting special functions of mathematical physics; worth reading as a period piece, it is still relevant today. John B. Conway, Functions of One Complex Variable, 2nd ed. (1978, reprinted with corrections, 1995), is a beautifully organized introduction to the analysis of complex functions at an undergraduate level. Ian Stewart and David Tall, Complex Analysis (1983, reprinted with corrections, 1985), is an undergraduate textbook that includes historical material and an unusual amount of motivating discussion to bring out the geometric ideas behind the rigorous formalism. Lars V. Ahlfors, Complex Analysis, 3rd ed. (1979), is an advanced undergraduate text by one of the subject’s leading authorities.
Measure theory
H.S. Bear, A Primer of Lebesgue Integration, 2nd ed. (2002), is an introduction to Henri Lebesgue’s theory of measure and integration at an undergraduate level.
Ordinary differential equations and dynamical systems
Martin Braun, Differential Equations and Their Applications, 4th ed. (1993), is a typical undergraduate text on differential equations that is unusually clear and readable. Morris W. Hirsch and Stephen Smale, Differential Equations, Dynamical Systems, and Linear Algebra (1974), was the first textbook to bring the qualitative theory of differential equations into the modern era for classroom use. Martin Golubitsky and Michael Dellnitz, Linear Algebra and Differential Equations Using MATLAB (1999), includes computer software, MATLAB on a CDROM, for carrying out symbolic calculations to develop differential equations for beginning undergraduates. John H. Hubbard and Beverly H. West, Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach, 2 vol. (1991–95; vol. 1 reprinted with corrections, 1997), uses in vol. 1 the methods of the qualitative theory of differential equations to develop traditional and modern topics within the field and is computeroriented and highly pictorial in its approach; vol. 2 presents the qualitative theory of differential equations when many variables are present. Robert L. Devaney, An Introduction to Chaotic Dynamical Systems, 2nd ed. (1989, reissued 1998), introduces rigorous mathematics of chaos theory in the setting of discretetime dynamics in order to minimize technicalities.
Partial differential equations and Fourier analysis
Michael Renardy and Robert C. Rogers, An Introduction to Partial Differential Equations (1993, reprinted with corrections, 1996), on the theory and applications of partial differential equations, is a good starting point for serious mathematicians. T.W. Körner, Fourier Analysis (1988, reissued with corrections, 1989), is a clear and simple introduction to Fourier analysis, leading into more advanced topics.
Other areas of analysis
John B. Conway, A Course in Functional Analysis, 2nd ed. (1990, reprinted with corrections, 1997), an excellent textbook; andLawrence W. Baggett, Functional Analysis: A Primer (1992), a thorough introduction, are suitable for advanced undergraduates. Stefan Hildebrandt and Anthony Tromba, The Parsimonious Universe: Shape and Form in the Natural World (1996), is a popular account of the classical problems in the calculus of variations—the isoperimetric problem, shortest paths, brachistochrone, least action, and soap films—with magnificient illustrations. U. BrechtkenManderscheid, Introduction to the Calculus of Variations (1991; originally published in German, 1983), is an undergraduate text on the calculus of variations and its uses in science. Frank Morgan, Geometric Measure Theory: A Beginner’s Guide, 3rd ed. (2000), presents the Plateau problem from the modern geometric viewpoint, an excellent introduction to global analysis as applied to a classic variational problem. Errett Bishop and Douglas Bridges, Constructive Analysis (1985), offers a fairly accessible introduction to the ideas and methods of constructive analysis. Abraham Robinson, NonStandard Analysis, rev. ed. (1974, reissued 1996), is a readable account by the mathematician who made the field of nonstandard analysis respectable.
Article Contributors
Primary Contributors

John Colin Stillwell
Professor of Mathematics, University of San Francisco, California. Author of Mathematics and Its History.

Ian Stewart
Professor of mathematics at the University of Warwick, England. Author of Concepts of Modern Mathematics, Does God Play Dice, Flatterland, From Here to Infinity, and Nature's Numbers.
Other Encyclopedia Britannica Contributors
Article History
Type  Contributor  Date  

Changed Archimedes's birthdate from c. 285 BC to 287 BCE.  Oct 06, 2017  
Add new Web site: Wolfram MathWorld  Analysis.  Oct 10, 2013  
Added new Web site: Wolfram MathWorld.  Jul 06, 2006  
Article revised.  Aug 05, 2005  
Article revised.  Nov 16, 2001  
Article revised.  Oct 26, 2001  
Article added to new online database.  Jul 26, 1999 